Each player must now have its own plan. As in Section 10.1, it seems best to define a plan as a mapping from states to actions, because it may not be clear what actions will be taken by the other decision maker. In Section 10.1, the other decision maker was nature, and here it is a rational opponent. Let and denote plans for and , respectively. Since the number of stages in Formulation 10.4 is fixed, stage-dependent plans of the form and are appropriate (recall that stage-dependent plans were defined in Section 10.1.3). Each produces an action and , respectively.

Now consider different solution concepts for Formulation 10.4.
For
, a *deterministic plan* is a function
, that produces an action
, for each state and stage
. For
it is instead
, which
produces an action
, for each and
. Now consider defining a randomized plan. Let
and denote the sets of all probability distributions over
and , respectively. A *randomized plan for
*
yields some
for each and
.
Likewise, a *randomized plan for
* yields some
for each and
.

Steven M LaValle 2012-04-20